Makassar Biennale 2019 | Menjadi “Orang Sanwan”: Guru Shen dan Perjalanan Legendaris Seorang Lelaki Asal Indonesia
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Menjadi “Orang Sanwan”: Guru Shen dan Perjalanan Legendaris Seorang Lelaki Asal Indonesia

Guru Shen Hao Hui (沈浩輝) bersama istrinya memiliki restauran mi sapi di Kota Sanwan yang bertempat tak jauh dari Kantor Pos Sanwan, 100 meter saja.

Ketika pertama kali berjumpa dengan Guru Shen pada tahun 2018, saya mendapati beberapa kerajinan seni Indonesia di dinding restorannya. Saya sangat penasaran saat itu: Kenapa topeng-topeng dan kerajinan kayu ini bisa berada di tempat ini? Istri Guru Shen yang ketika itu tengah sibuk memasak pesanan membalas pertanyaanku seadanya:

“Ia asal Indonesia,” katanya.

“Saya punya banyak kenangan dengan mi sapi Shen.” Jili, rekan SCC saya, sering menyebut tentang sejarah lokal ketika dia masih di universitas, “Ibuku suka sekali membeli daging sapi dan menyimpannya di kulkas. Saya pun sangat menikmati cita rasanya yang unik.”

Jimpe tiba di Sanwan pada penghujung tahun 2018. Ketika itu pula saya mengetahui kalau Guru Shen bisa berbahasa Indonesia dengan baik. Jimpe dan Shen berdiskusi dalam bahasa ibu mereka selama 15-20 menit, meskipun faktanya Shen berusia 16 tahun ketika meninggalkan Lampung menuju Taiwan setelah tamat SMP dan kini ia berusia 75 tahun.

Pada Februari 2019, Ji dan saya membawakannya artikel “Dua Halaman yang Menghadap ke Sungai” yang ditulis Jimpe. Sore itu ia baru saja selesai tidur siang, kemudian mulai membaca dengan perlahan.

“Saya bisa baca, kata demi kata. Saya butuh sedikit waktu. Sekalipun sudah lebih 50 tahun saya tak lagi membaca tulisan dalam bahasa Indonesia…” Setelah itu, Guru Shen membuka kenangannya dan berbagi perjalanan dirinya kepada kami.

Pra-event Makassar Biennale

Pada 9 Maret 2019, SCC (Sanwan Cultural Collective) mengatur sebuah lokakarya wawancara bagi 11 orang anak dari Sekolah Dasar Sanwan (三灣國小). Sebelum menuju restauran Shen, kami berbagi informasi (pulau-pulau, cuaca, dan video) dengan anak-anak itu di kelas.

“Ada berapa pulau di Taiwan? Bagaimana dengan Indonesia?” Anak-anak coba menjawab, namun tercengang ketika mengetahui keseluruhan pulau yang ada di Indonesia sejumlah 17.508, bila dibanding Taiwan yang sejumlah 351 pulau – hampir 50 kali lipatnya.

Selain itu, SCC (Sanwan Cultural Collective) juga mengajari mereka beberapa kosakata yang gampang – seperti “bihun”, “mi”, dan “sabun”, dan memberanikan mereka untuk mengucapkan kata-kata itu dengan bahasa ibu mereka (Bahasa Hakka atau Hokkian). Betapa miripnya kata-kata tersebut. Setelah menonton sebuah film pendek 4 menit melalui Youtube, seorang anak lelaki usia 10 tahun (何銍恩) bertanya pada kami: “Ada kemiripan arsitektur Indonesia dengan arsitektur Thailand, kok bisa?” Ia dengan cermat mengamati candi Borobudur dalam video tersebut. Kami juga sangat senang bisa berbagi pengetahuan dengan mereka tentang berbagai agama dan kepercayaan yang ada di Indonesia.

Masing-masing anak lalu memegang peta Indonesia. Mereka membentangkan sebuah peta global yang lebih besar bersama Guru Shen. Ia mengenalkan pulau-pulau besar yang ada, seperti Sumatra, Kalimantan, Jawa, dan Bali pada anak-anak tersebut. Ia mengarahkan jemarinya di pulau Kalimantan, “Nah, ada 3 negara yang berada di pulau ini. Di sini (menunjuk wilayah Mindanao dan kepulauan Sulu) milik negara Filipina.”

Anak-anak makin ingin tahu mengenai gunung api, gempa bumi, pulau dan cuaca tropis di Indonesia. Namun, ada dua orang gadis kecil usia 8 tahun (林沁沂、吳崇渼) yang bertanya padanya, “Bagaimanakah kampung halamanmu menurutmu? Apa pekerjaan keluargamu saat itu? Dari pertanyaan itu kami mulai mengetahui kisah sesungguhnya.

Warisan Hidup: Guru Shen dan Koper Kulitnya

Orang tua Shen menjalankan usaha kecil di Lampung. Ia satu-satunya anak lelaki dari 12 bersaudara yang memilih bermigrasi ke Taiwan. Guru Shen menjawab kedua gadis kecil itu: “Meskipun pemerintah sedang mengembangkan industri petrolium di Sumatra dan mentransportasikan ke Palembang. Dibanding pulau Jawa, khususnya Jakarta jauh lebih berkembang (dibanding Sumatra).”

Shen remaja tiba di Taiwan tahun 1960 saat berusia 16 tahun. Kami yakin kalau ia terlahir di penghujung masa pendudukan Jepang di Hindia Belanda. Ingatannya benar-benar melekat dengan masa lalu Indonesia. Sekali ia menunjuk dekorasi tradisional Kalimantan yang ada di rumahnya sambil menyinggung tentang pertarungan politik yang terjadi di Kalimantan sebelum tahun 1950- an. Beberapa orang coba menuntut kemerdekaan namun digagalkan oleh tentara nasional.

“Sepanjang tahun 1960, banyak orang berdatangan dari Indonesia ke Taiwan dan China Daratan. Saya berangkat naik kapal Jepang Kouan Maru (興安丸、こうあんまる) dari Jakarta, bersama lebih 1000 orang pelajar dan keluarga mereka, keseluruhan mencapai lebih 10.000 orang. Namun, kapal perang Tiongkok mengganggu perjalanan kami. Sang kapten mengisi tangki-tangki air dan bahan bakar dengan terpaksa di Hong Kong, dan kami akhirnya tiba di pelabuhan Keelung (Taiwan bagian utara) dua hari kemudian. Saya masih ingat berangkat tanggal 1 September, lalu tiba pada pukul sembilan pagi di tanggal 9 September…”

“Setelah berlabuh dan turun dari kapal kami diarahkan ke SD Daqiao (Taipei,大橋國小), tempat yang dulu jadi penampungan sementara kami. Saya tidak punya uang dan cuma punya dua koper kulit, sepekan kemudian petugas meminta kami memutuskan untuk tetap belajar di sekolah atau mencari pekerjaan.”

Guru Shen memperlihatkan apresiasinya pada Presiden Chiang Kai Shek (蔣中正總統): “Presiden Chiang mengangkat panitia ad hoc untuk mengatasi situasi kami, begitu pula dengan kelompok yang tiba di Taiwan di tahun 1963. Secara bertahap, orang-orang ini menuju ke berbagai kota/wilayah di Taiwan, termasuk Taipei, Taichung, Chiayi, Tainan, dsb, melanjutkan pendidikan melalui anggaran publik.

“Koper-koperku penuh dengan pakaian dan barang-barang kebutuhan dasar. Tidak ada uang, tak ada pula sanak famili serta kerabat di sini. Saya berkenalan dan dapat teman-teman baru selama perjalanan. Mereka datang dari Surabaya, Jakarta, dan Semarang. Saya masih memelihara koper-koper itu. Kini koper-koper itu telah menjadi barang pusaka keluarga Shen di Sanwan.”

Perpisahan yang Sepi

“Apa orangtuamu mendukung (kepergianmu)? Apa kata mereka ketika kau meninggalkan mereka?” Guru Shen tersenyum dan berkata, “Ibuku hanya bilang padaku, ‘Jagalah dirimu baik-baik. Bertanggung jawablah atas keputusanmu. Bila kau gagal, pindah-pindahlah. Semua ini hidupmu sendiri.’ Itu saja.”

Hanya ayahnya yang berang yang mengantarnya ke Tanjung Priok di Jakarta, karena ibu dan keluarganya yang lain mengurus usaha mereka. Ayah Shen masih marah dan terus menyalahkannya sebelum ia menaiki kapal, “Kami sudah membesarkanmu selama 16 tahun. Sekarang kau memilih meninggalkan kami. Saya mau lihat apa kau bisa bertahan hidup atau tidak!” Tiket kapal diurus oleh ibunya, kerabat dan tetangganya. “Keluargaku tidak menyetujui keputusanku kecuali Ibuku.”

Guru Shen tidak hanya belajar, tetapi bekerja keras juga. Ia menyelesaikan stratanya di Universitas Nasional Chengchi (政治大學) di pinggiran Taipei. Ia bekerja di perusahaan konstruksi jalan untuk memperoleh uang pada saat libur musim panas.

Setelah lulus dari universitas, beberapa orang menawarinya pekerjaan di berbagai kota di Taiwan. Atas pertimbangan cuaca dan alasan-alasan lain, Guru Shen akhirnya memilih untuk menjadi seorang guru di Kota Sanwan, karena di sini memiliki “Pemandangan dan sungai yang bagus”.

“Saya besar di Indonesia. Saya sudah membulatkan tekad untuk berangkat menuntut ilmu ke luar negeri ketika saya masih kecil. Ayahku menginginkanku belajar di Australia, yang jauh lebih dekat dari Indonesia. Akan tetapi, aku bilang tidak. Aku ingin belajar bahasa dan budaya Tionghoa. Itulah mengapa ibuku mendukung.” Ibu Shen meninggal lebih dulu dari ayahnya. Setiap tahun ia pulang ke Indonesia. Ia bertemu dengan ayahnya empat kali setelah menetap di Sanwan.

Pada kali kedua ia bertemu ayahnya di tahun 1970, ayahnya memberinya ‘Silsilah Keluarga Shen’, sebuah buku silsilah keluarga tradisional Tionghoa, sebagai simbol pula dari ritual ‘garis turunan-lelaki’. Yang berarti pula bahwa Guru Shen dianggap sebagai generasi pertama yang tinggal di Taiwan. Ia tidak hanya harus mencatat nama anak lelakinya di buku itu, tapi juga harus menjadi ‘lelaki sejati’ yang bertanggung jawab penuh untuk melanjutkan dan mewariskan garis darah keluarga ‘Hakka-Indonesia’ mereka di Taiwan.

Ia kembali ke Jakarta untuk bertemu dengan anggota-anggota keluarga yang lain. “Saudaraku, saudariku, dan kerabat-kerabatku berkumpul di Jakarta untuk berjumpa denganku bila mereka mengetahui aku sedang pulang kampung. Sekarang saya jarang pulang kampung. Saya sudah tua, dan keluarga intiku sudah menetap di sini.”

Itulah alasan kenapa ada beberapa kerajinan seni Indonesia di restaurannya. Benda-benda itu mengingatkannya akan kenangan keluarga.

“Tja be”: Warisan Historis dalam Minya

Guru Shen mengajar di SMP Sanwan (三灣國中) sejak tahun 1968-2004. Ia dulu menjabat sebagai direktur kesiswaan mencakup juga bidang akademis. Bahkan sebelum pensiun, Shen mendiskusikan dengan istrinya untuk membuka sebuah toko.

“Dia mau mengelola toko mainan. Tetapi, saya kira itu bukan ide yang bagus. Menurutku, memasak mi jauh lebih mudah dijadikan penghidupan. Mi. Ya, mi sapi!” Mereka membuka “Mi Sapi Shen” di depan sekolah di tahun 1978-1979; meskipun, sesuai kepercayaan tradisional Tionghoa, tidak baik tinggal dekat pekuburan (pekuburan masih ada di depan gerbang sekolah hingga saat ini) Shen membeli sepetak tanah dan membangun “Mi Sapi Shen” tahun 1981.

Karena Guru Shen telah mengajar di sekolah setempat selama lebih dari 30 tahun, hingga kini banyak penduduk/pelajar usia paruh baya yang sudah ketagihan dengan rasa minya yang unik, termasuk Mr.Wun (溫志強), Wali Kota Sanwan.

Guru Shen membuat “cabe” sendiri. Mereka memasak kuah sapi dengan menambahkannya. Satu kali ia menulis “Tja be” di notebook-ku. Saya sontak membalas:

“Wah, kata ini sudah jarang ditemukan sekarang.”

“Presiden Soekarno? Atau Presiden Soeharto? Saya tidak tau pasti siapa yang telah mengubah ejaan aslinya. Kata ‘cabe’, seperti yang kau tahu, diubah. Itu baru. Berdasar sebuah kebijakan, beberapa orang mengkritik dan menyalahkan kekonyolan ini. Saya sangat sepakat dengan itu. Mengapa kita – orang Indonesia – ikut-ikutan dan beradaptasi dengan ejaan Malaysia? Kita adalah sebuah negara yang hebat dengan populasi dan daratan yang lebih besar dari yang mereka miliki! Kita tidak boleh ikut mereka.”

Guru Shen kukuh dengan pendiriannya, supaya kita bisa mengikuti jejaknya kembali ke “ejaan bahasa Indonesia yang disempurnakan” pada kurun 1970-an. Lebih jauh, ini tidak sekadar cerita “Orang Sanwan Hakka”, tetapi juga sungguh sebuah warisan berharga digabung dengan sejarah modern Indonesia dalam semangkuk mi sapi.

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CATATAN: Chen-wei Lin aka Laurent menyusun catatan ini usai pra-event Makassar Biennale 2019 pada 20 Maret 2019 di Kota Sanwan, Taiwan, yang terlaksana atas kerja sama Sanwan Cultural Center – Yayasan Makassar Biennale.

 

Becoming a “Sanwaner”: Guru Shen and His Legendary Journey

A Man From Indonesia

Guru Shen Hao Hui (沈浩輝) owns a beef noodle shop in Sanwan Town with his wife, where located to the Sanwan Post Office just 100 meters near.

When meeting with Guru Shen in 2018 at the first time, I found several Indonesian art crafts on his restaurant wall. I was so curious about it: Why did these masks and wooden art crafts appear in such a shop here? Shen’s wife was busy cooking and just gave me a simple reply at the moment:

“He was a man from Indonesia,” she said.

“I have such great memory with Shen’s beef noodle.” My SCC partner Jili used to mention about the local history when she was in university, “My mom loved to buy much beef and put in refrigerator. And I really enjoyed comfortably of its unique favor.”

Jimpe arrived in Sanwan in the end of 2018. It was also my first time to know that Guru Shen spoke good Bahasa Indonesia. Jimpe and Shen discussed in their mother tongue within 15-20 minutes, despite that 16-year-old teen Shen had departed Lampung for Taiwan since finishing his junior high school since then. He is now almost 75 years old.

In the February of 2019, Ji and I delivered the artcle “Dua Halaman Rumah yang Menghadap ke Sungai” which written by Jimpe to him. In the afternoon he just finished taking a nap, and started reading carefully.

I can read it, word by word . Give me some time. Although I have more than 50 years no longer reading in Bahasa Indonesia…” After that, Guru Shen opened his mind and shared his personal journey to us.

Pre-Event of Makassar Biennale

On March 9th. 2019, SCC arranged an interview workshop to the 11 kids from Sanwan Elementary School (三灣國小). Before heading to Shen’s shop, we shared some information (islands, weatherand video) with them in class.

“How many islands are there in Taiwan? And, how about in Indonesia?” Kids tried to answer, but astonishing that the total quantity of islands in Indonesia (17508) is more tremendous than in Taiwan (351) near 50 times.

In addition, SCC also taught them some easy words - like “bihun”, “mi” and “sabun”-, and encouraged them pronounce from their mother tongue (Bahasa Hakka or Hokkien). How similiar they are. After watching a 4-minute short film through youtube, a 10-year-old boy (何銍恩) asked us: “There is an Indonesian architecture look so similar to Thai’s. Why?” He smartly observed Borobudur in the video. We were so glad to share the differnent kinds of religions in Indonesia with them.

Each kid had an Indonesia map. They spread out a larger global map with Guru Shen, and he introduced famous islands such as Sumatra, Kalimantan, Jawa, Bali to kids, meanwhile moving his thick finger to Kalimantan, “Now there are 3 nations located on this island. And here (pointing to Mindanao and Sulu Archipelago) belongs to the Philippines.”

The kids felt much inquisitive about volcanoes, earthquakes, islands and tropical weather in Indonesia. However, there were two 8-year-old girls (林沁沂、吳崇渼)asking him” What was your impression to your hometown? What did your family do then?” From then on, we started to understand his original story from their questions.

Living Legacy: Guru Shen and his leather suitcases

Shen’ parents were running a small business in Lampung. He was the only kid  choosing to Taiwan among 12 brothers and sisters. Guru Shen replied to the girls: “Although our government developed fossil oil industry in Sumatra and transported in Palembang. Compare to Jawa, however, Jakarta was better developed (than in Sumatra)”.

Teen Shen arrived in Taiwan in 1960 when he was 16. We are able to know that he was born in the end of Japan Occupation of the Dutch East Indies period. His memory has been truly connected to the past of Indonesia. Once he pointed at a traditional Kalimantan decoration in his house and mentioned about the political struggle in Kalimantan before 1950’s. Some people called for political independence but failed by national army.

“During 1960, many people came from Indonesia to Taiwan and Mainland China. I was embarking on a Japanese ship Kouan Maru (興安丸、こうあんまる) from Jarkarta , with over 1000 young students and their families, totally over 10000 people. However, the Chinese warship interfered our journey. The captain filled up the tanks of water and fuel urgently in Hong Kong, and we finally arrived at Port of Keelung (Northern Taiwan) 2 days later. I still remember the day I left was September 1st, and arrived at 9 o’clock a.m, September 9th…”

“After disembarkation we were soon arranged to Daqiao Elementary School (Taipei,大橋國小) , where used to be a temporary shelter for us. I had no money but with only 2 leather suitcases, and a week later the officials required us to decide whether to keep learning in school or get a job.”

Guru Shen showed his appreciation to President Chiang Kai-Shek (蔣中正總統): “President Chiang opened an ad hoc group to settle down our situations, as well as with another group who arrived in Taiwan in 1963. These people gradually headed for different cities/regions in Taiwan, including Taipei, Taichung, Chiayi ,Tainan and so on, to keep learning at public expense.”

“My suitcases was filled up with clothing and basic commodities. Neither money, nor family members and relatives here. I made friends during my journey. They came from Surabaya, Jakarta and Semarang. I still preserve the suitcases. Now they have become the ancestors of Shen’s family in Sanwan.”

A Lonely Farewell

“Did your parents support (to leave)? What did they tell to you when you were leaving?” Guru Shen smiled and said, “My mom only told me: ‘You had better watch yourself. Be responsible for your decision. If you fail yourself, just roam. It is your own life.’ That was all.”

Only his fury father took him to Tanjung Priok in Jakarta, for his mother and other family members were managing their store. Shen’s father was still angry and kept blaming on him seriously before boarding “We had brought you up 16 years long. Now you are choosing to leave us. Let me see whether can you  survive or not!” The ship ticket was arranged by his mother, relatives and neighborhood. “My family disagreed my choice except my mom.”

Guru Shen not only studied but worked hard. He finished his degree in National Chengchi University (政治大學) located in suburban Taipei. He joined in the road-construction group to earn money during summer vacations.

After graduating from university, some people wanted to offer job recommedation to him in different cities in Taiwan. According to weather and other reasons, Guru Shen chose to be a teacher in Sanwan Town finally, for here with “good view and river”.

“I was grown up in Indonesia. I made up my mind to go abroad for study when I was a child. My father supported me to Australia, where much near to Indonesia. However, I said no. I wanted to learn Chinese language and culture. It was why my mother supported.” Shen’s mother passed away earlier than his father. Every year he went back Indonesia one time. He had met his father 4 times after rooting in Sanwan.

At the second time when he met his father after 1970, his father gave him “Shen Family Genealogy”, a traditional Chinese family-tree book, as well as a symbol of “male-inheritance” ritual. That also means Guru Shen is regarded as the first generation in Taiwan. He not only needed to record his son’s name on it, also a real “man” who should pay entire responsibilities to inherit and succeed their “Hakka- Indonesian” family blood in Taiwan.

He went back Jakarta to meet other family members before. “My brothers, sisters and relatives would gather to Jakarta to meetup with me if they knew that I was back home. Now I seldom go back. I am old, and my family is rooted here.”

Thus, it is the reason why there are some Indonesian art crafts in his restaurant. They remind him of family memories.

Tja be”: Historical heritage in his noodle

Guru Shen had been serving in Sanwan Junior High School (三灣國中) since 1968-2004. He used to be the director of student affairs as well as academic affairs here. Before retirement, Shen had discussed with his wife to manage a store.

“She would like to manage a toy store. However, I did not think it was a good idea. In my opinion, cooking noodles was much easier to make a  living. Noodles. Yes, beef noodles!” They started “Shen’s Beef Noodles” in front of the school during 1978-1979; nevertheless, according to some Chinese traditional reasons, it was not good to live nearby the cemetery (cemetery is now still in front of the school gate) Shen bought a piece of new land and built“Shen’s Beef Noodles” in 1981.

Since Guru Shen had taught in local school for over 30 years, now many middle-age “inhabitants/ students” still get accustomed to the unique noodle taste, including  Mr. Wun (溫志強), the Sanwan Town Mayor.

Guru Shen makes “cabe” himself. They cook the beef soup by adding it. Once he wrote “Tja be” on my notebook. I surprisingly replied:

“Wow, this word is not easy to be found today.”

“President Soekarno? Or President Soeharto?I am not sure who’d changed the original spelling. The word ‘cabe’, as you know, is modified. It is new. After such kind of policy, some people criticized and blamed on its fatuity. I totally agreed with that too. Why should we -the Indonesian people-follow up and adapt with Malaysian spelling? We are in a great nation with big population and land than what they own! We can’t change with them.”

Guru Shen insisted on his value, so that we could follow his footprint back to “ejaan bahasa indonesia yang disempurnakan” during the 1970’s. Moreover, it is not just an “Orang Sanwan Hakka” story, but also a living and truly valuable legacy combined with modern Indonesian history in such a bowl of beef noodle.

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NOTE: Chen-wei Lin a.ka. Laurent writes this account after a pre-event Makassar Biennale 2019, 20th March, in Sanwan Town, Taiwan, as part of collaboration Sanwan Cultural Center – Makassar Biennale Foundation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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